Age Matrix

The age matrix provides information on each state's age of majority, the age at which a juvenile can be prosecuted as an adult, and the maximum age of probation and parole. To update your state's information, email the national office.

Definitions of Age Matrix Terms:

Age of Criminal Responsibility/Majority - Age which any offense automatically subjects an individual to adult court jurisdiction.

Age Juvenile Case Can Be Transferred to Adult Court  -  Minimum age in which a juvenile can have their case transferred and be prosecuted as an adult. 

 

State Civil Age of Majority Age of Criminal Responsibility/Majority Age Juvenile Case Can Be Transferred to Adult Court Maximum Parole Age Maximum Probation Age
Alabama 19 18 14 with a juvenile court hearing; 16 direct file for class A felonies 21 21
Alaska 18 18 16 N/A No juvenile parole in Alaska 19
Arizona 18 18 18
Arkansas 18 18 14 21 21
California 18 16 16 N/A 25
Colorado 18 18 15 21 Open--If a person commits a crime as a juvenile, and are not adjudicated on that crime until they are an adult, they will be placed on Juvenile Probation regardless of their age.
Connecticut 18 18 15 N/A - Effective 7/1/18, delinquency commitment was removed from statute as a disposition for adjudicated delinquents, thereby eliminating juvenile parole in Connecticut. Court may place adjudicated delinquent (<18 at time of offense) on sprvsn with/without residential placement, to exceed 18 mos. May be extended no more than 12 mos. Total sprvsn not to exceed 30 mos. Max prob. age varies if juvenile adjudicated after 18.
Delaware 18 ranges between ages 14-16 depending on the specific charge 14 18 ( Delaware does not have parole they have Community Service) 18
District of Columbia 18 18 16 N/A 21
Florida 18 16 The juvenile offender must be at least 14 years old. 21 19
Georgia 18 17 13-17 for certain offenses 21 21
Hawaii 18 18 On/after 16 and alleged to have committed act that would constitute felony if committed by adult under certain circumstances. Minimum age on/after 14 & alleged to have committed act that constitutes a felony if committed by adult. See HRS 571-22. 20 20
Idaho 18 18 Generally 14 but for certain offenses in Idaho Code 20-509 (murder, rape, arson, etc.) there is no minimum age No juvenile parole in Idaho 21
Illinois 18 21 21
Indiana 18 18 for all criminal offenses; 16 for certain felony offenses (see IC 31-30-1-4) Upon waiver motion by prosecutor and finding of juvenile court: 12-16 for certain major felony offenses; no minimum age for felony offense and previous felony or non-traffic misdemeanor conviction (see IC 31-30-3) 21 21
Iowa 18 18 14 18 18
Kansas 18 10 14 23 23
Kentucky The Juvenile Code does not contemplate a minimal age of criminality. Ten (10) is the minimal age for secure detention of a juvenile unless it is a capital offense. Must be at least thirteen (13) years of age in order to be declared as a JSO. The age of 18 triggers adult court jurisdiction. Must be at least fourteen (14) years of age., under circumstances outlined in KRS 640.010. Contact ICJ Office for more information. There is no age or offenses for parole eligibility. Youth can be committed up to the age of 18 to DJJ. If the youth is 17.5 years of age, then for a period of up to one (1) year. Youth can have the commitments extended up to the age of 21 if independent Youth can be probated to DJJ for up the age of 18 or if youth is 17.5 years of age- up to 1 year.
Louisiana 17 21 21
Maine 18 18 No minimum age for a bind over to adult court. 21 21
Maryland 21 14 for 1st Degree Murder and Rape, but normally 16 14 for 1st Degree Murder and Rape, but normally 16 21 21
Massachusetts 18 18 14 18 or 21 (if indicted as Youthful Offender) 18
Michigan 18 18 14 21 21
Minnesota 18 18 14 21 21
Mississippi 18 18 13 20 20
Missouri 18 17 14 18 21
Montana 18 18 12 18 21
Nebraska 19 18 14 N/A 19
Nevada 18 18 13 21 21
New Hampshire 18 18 15 18 21
New Jersey 18 18 A discretionary and presumptive waiver can be used for youth age 15 and older that meet statutorily-delineated offense criteria set forth in NJ SA 2A:4A-26.1 There is no maximum parole age in NJ. Persons granted parole must serve their entire term regardless of the their age upon completion. There is no maximum probation age in NJ. Persons adjudicated on an offense committed while a juvenile must satisfy the terms of the adjudication regardless of their age at sentencing.
New Mexico 18 18 14 21 21
New York 18 18 13 21 21 with transfer to adult probation
North Carolina 18 18 13 21 19
North Dakota 18 10 14 or older for serious offenses (Murder, Attempted Murder, Gross Sexual Imposition by force or threat of force, or kidnapping). A juvenile can ask for a voluntary transfer to adult court if both the juvenile and the parents agree. 20 20
Ohio 18 18 14 21 21
Oklahoma 18 18 13 to 15 (for Murder I)*some age 13-14 can become Youthful Offender Cases 19 19
Oregon 18 18 15 25 23
Pennsylvania 18 18 Automatic certification to adult court if murder. 15+ with the commission of certain crimes with a deadly weapon. 15+ charged with certain crimes and who have previously been adjudicated delinquent of certain crimes. Prosecutor can file motion to certify. NO PAROLE FOR JUVENILES 21st Birthday
Rhode Island 18 18 No age limit if charge punishable by life imprisonment. 16 if charge is another felony. If under 16 with felony charge, youth may be certified to serve sentence in juvenile facility until age of majority & may transfer to adult facility or adult probation N/A No Parole 19
South Carolina 18 21 18
South Dakota 18 18 16 21 21
Tennessee 18 18 Depends on offense 19 19
Texas 18 17 14 for capital murder, agg controlled substance felony, or first degree felony; 15 for 2nd degree, 3rd degree, or state jail felony 19 18 (19 for Determinate Sentence Probation cases)
Utah 18 18 14 and charged with murder, or attempted murder, or aggravated murder, or attempted aggravated murder 25 25
Vermont 18 14 - but only on certain offenses 16 We don't have parole 21
Virgin Islands 18 21 21
Virginia 18 18 14 21 21
Washington 18 18 12 25 21
West Virginia 18 no minimum 14, unless other factors are present N/A No Parole 21
Wisconsin 18 17 Any state criminal law violation age 15; certain offenses or circumstances age 14. 25 19
Wyoming 18 N/A No Parole 21